Cytospora Ehrenb., Sylv. mycol. berol. (Berlin): 28 (1818)
Diaporthomycetidae, Diaporthales, Cytosporaceae, Cytospora
Index Fungorum number: IF7904; Facesoffungi number: FoF 07224; 297 morphological species; 117 species with sequence data.
Pathogenic or saprobic on plant tissues. Sexual morph: Ascomata perithecial or globose, immersed to erumpent, solitary or 3–10 ascomata aggregated, brown to black, with long neck swollen at the tips, ostiolate. Ostiole periphysate. Peridium comprising outer, 4–6 layers of dark brown with cells of textura angularis and 5–7 layers of, inner, small, hyaline, thin-walled, cells of textura angularis. Paraphyses few, hyaline. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, clavate, short-pedicellate, apex round, with or without apical ring. Ascospores uni- to biseriate, unicellular or rarely bicellular, allantoid or ellipsoid, hyaline, smooth-walled. Asexual morph: Conidiomata pyriform in section, brown to dark brown, divided into compartments by bending of peridium. Peridium pale brown to brown, comprising 4–6 layers of cells of textura angularis. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells arising from conidiomatal wall, phialidic, simple or branched, hyaline, cylindrical. Conidia unicellular, allantoid, hyaline, smooth-walled (Hyde et al. 2020).
Type species: Cytospora chrysosperma (Pers.) Fr., Syst. mycol. (Lundae) 2(2): 542 (1823)
Notes: Cytospora was introduced by Ehrenberg (1818). The genus contains important pathogens causing canker and dieback disease of a wide range of plants (Adams et al. 2005, 2006, Hyde et al. 2016, Norphanphoun et al. 2017). Recent accounts of the genus have been published with several new taxa (Norphanphoun et al. 2017, 2018, Tibpromma et al. 2017, Senanayake et al. 2017, Hyde et al. 2017).
Species illustrated in this entry
Cytospora cedri Syd., P. Syd. & E.J. Butler
Adams GC, Roux J, Wingfield MJ. 2006 – Cytospora species (Ascomycota, Diaporthales, Valsaceae), introduced and native pathogens of trees in South Africa. Australasian Plant Pathology 35, 521–548.
Adams GC, Wingfield MJ, Common R, Roux J. 2005 – Phylogenetic relationships and morphology of Cytospora species and related teleomorphs (Ascomycota, Diaporthales, Valsaceae) from Eucalyptus. Studies in Mycology 52, 1–144.
Ehrenberg CG. 1818 – Sylvae Mycologicae Berolinenses. Formis Theophili Bruschcke, Berlin, Germany.
Hyde KD, Hongsanan S, Jeewon R, Bhat DJ et al. 2016 – Fungal diversity notes 367–490: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa. Fungal Diversity 80, 1–270.
Hyde KD, Norphanphoun C, Abreu VP, Bazzicalupo A et al. 2017 – Fungal diversity notes 603–708: taxonomic and phylogenetic notes on genera and species. Fungal Diversity 87, 1–235.
Norphanphoun C, Doilom M, Daranagama DA, Phookamsak R et al. 2017 – Revisiting the genus Cytospora and allied species. Mycosphere 8, 51–97.
Norphanphoun C, Raspé O, Jeewon R, Wen TC, Hyde KD. 2018 – Morphological and phylogenetic characterisation of novel Cytospora species associated with mangroves. MycoKeys 38, 93–120.
Senanayake IC, Crous P, Groenewald J, Maharachchikumbura SSN et al. 2017 – Families of Diaporthales based on morphological and phylogenetic evidence. Studies in Mycology 86, 217–296.
Tibpromma S, Hyde KD, Jeewon R, Maharachchikumbura SSN et al. 2017 – Fungal diversity notes 491–602: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa. Fungal Diversity 83, 1–261.