Clonostachys Corda, Pracht-Fl. Eur. Schimmelbild.: 31 (1839)
Hypocreomycetidae, Hypocreales, Bionectriaceae, Clonostachys
Saprobic or endophytic on terrestrial hosts. Sexual morph: Ascomata superficial on the substratum or embedded in a weakly or well-developed erumpent stroma, solitary or densely aggregated, perithecial, globose, subglobose to pyriform, white, yellow to orange, do not change colour in KOH or lactic acid, ostiolate. Peridium composed of 1–3 layers. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, clavate, saccate, cylindrical, sessile or short pedicellate, rarely evanescent. Ascospores hyaline, aseptate to multi-septate, fusiform, ellipsoid or broadly ellipsoid, smooth-walled. Asexual morph: Hyphomycetous, penicillium-like. Conidiophores dimorphic or monomorphic, mostly sporodochial, hyaline, smooth to finely echinulate-walled. Conidiogenous cells phialidic. Phialides usually cylindrical. Conidia unicellular to multi-septate, ellipsoidal, fusiform to subfusiform, hyaline, smooth or striate- walled (adapted from Rossman et al. 1999).
Type species: Clonostachys araucaria Corda, Pracht-Fl. Eur. Schimmelbild.: 31 (1839)
Notes: Clonostachys species have mainly been reported from tropical and subtropical regions (Schroers 2001, Domsch et al. 2007). Some species of Clonostachys are effective biological control agents (Auer & Ludwig-Müller 2014, Sutton & Mason 2017, Bobeck & Pearce 2017). Clonostachys rosea (strain BVT Cr-7) is a beneficial biological control agent for fungal plant pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Pythium, Alternaria, Monilinia, Colletotrichum, Cladosporium, Rhizoctonia., Streptomyces, Didymella and Fusarium (Sutton & Mason 2017). Furthermore, strain 88-710 helps to protect plants against environmental stresses, hence promoting plant growth and productivity (Sutton & Mason 2017, Bobeck & Pearce 2017). Bionectria was linked to Clonostachys by Rossman et al. (2013) and priority given to the older and commonly used name Clonostachys.
Clonostachys rosea (Link) Schroers, Samuels, Seifert & W. Gams
Clonostachys byssicola Schroers, Stud. Mycol. 46: 80 (2001)