Graphium Corda, Icon. fung. (Prague) 1: 18 (1837)
Hypocreomycetidae, Microascales, Graphiaceae, Graphium
Index Fungorum number: IF8398; Facesoffungi number: FoF 02143; 59 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2020), 5 species with sequence data.
Saprobic on plant debris, woody substrates, sometimes causing wounds on tree bark or associated with beetles, occasionally isolated from soil, manure, polluted water, also reported to cause fungaemia in an immunosuppressed child post stem-cell transplant. Sexual morph: Undetermined. Asexual morph: Hyphomycetous. Conidiophores compact, pigmented, septate, penicillately branched in two to three levels, forming metulae at the apex. Conidiogenous cells in whorls of two to six, phialidic, with annellidic extensions. Conidia produced in a transparent, slimy droplet, aseptate, cylindrical to obovoid, sometimes slightly curved with age, truncate at base, often with a distinct basal frill, hyaline. Rarely synanamorphic forming obovoid, pigmented conidia (adapted from de Beer et al. 2013, Maharachchikumbura et al. 2016).
Type species: Graphium penicillioides Corda, Icon. fung. (Prague) 1: 18 (1837)
Notes: Graphium species are plant pathogens and also found in soil, plant debris, woody substrates, manure, and polluted water (de Beer et al. 2013, Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015, 2016, Wijayawardene et al. 2017). The genus was believed to have ophiostomatoid affinities (Goidànich 1935, Upadhyay 1981, Seifert & Okada 1993, de Beer et al. 2013). Cruywagen et al. (2010), based on SSU and ITS sequence data, included eight described and seven undescribed species, including G. penicillioides, in Graphium sensu stricto. de Beer et al. (2013) provided a description of Graphium sensu stricto and referred Graphium to the monophyletic family Graphiaceae (Microascales). Phylogenetically, Graphiaceae are distantly placed from the Microascaceae (Zhang et al. 2006, Spatafora et al. 2006, Schoch et al. 2009, Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015, 2016). Members of Graphium are characterized by distinctive, erect, black synnemata, each bearing a single, terminal, 1-celled, hyaline conidium produced from phialidic conidiogenous cell with annellidic extensions.
Species illustrated in this entry:
Graphium penicillioides Corda
Cruywagen EM, de Beer ZW, Roux J, Wingfield MJ. 2010 – Three new Graphium species from baobab trees in South Africa and Madagascar. Persoonia: Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi 25, 61.
de Beer ZW, Seifert KA, Wingfield MJ. 2013 – A nomenclator for ophiostomatoid genera and species in the Ophiostomatales and Microascales. In: Seifert KA, de Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ (eds). The ophiostomatoid fungi: expanding frontiers CBS biodiversity series. CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands 245–322.
Goidànich G. 1935 – Schema di una classificazione delle Stilbaceaeche erano riunite fin'ora nel genere Graphium Corda. Annals of Botany (Torino) 21, 40–50.
Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. 2016 – Families of Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 79, 1–317.
Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. 2015 – Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 72, 199–301.
Schoch CL, Sung GH, López-Giráldez F, Townsend JP et al. 2009 – The Ascomycota tree of life: a phylum-wide phylogeny clarifies the origin and evolution of fundamental reproductive and ecological traits. Systematic biology 58, 224–239.
Seifert KA, Okada G. 1993 – Graphium anamorphs of Ophiostoma species and similar anamorphs of other ascomycetes. In: Wingfield MJ, Seifert KA, Webber JF (Eds). Ceratocystis and Ophiostoma taxonomy, ecology, and pathogenicity. The American Phytopathological Society Press, St. Paul, Minnesota 27–41.
Spatafora JW, Sung GH, Johnson D, Hesse C et al. 2006 – A five-gene phylogeny of Pezizomycotina. Mycologia 98, 1018–1028.
Upadhyay HP. 1981 – A monograph of Ceratocystis and Ceratocystiopsis. The University of Georgia Press, Athens, Georgia.
Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Rajeshkumar KC, Hawksworth DL et al. 2017 – Notes for genera: Ascomycota. Fungal Diversity 86, 1–594.
Zhang N, Castelbury LA, Miller AN, Huhndorf SM et al. 2006 – An overview of the systematics of the Sordariomycetes based on a four-gene phylogeny. Mycologia 98, 1076–1087.