Chaetosphaeriales » Chaetosphaeriaceae


Chloridium Link, Mag. Gesell. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 3(1-2): 13 (1809)

Sordariomycetidae, Chaetosphaeriales, Chaetosphaeriaceae, Chloridium

Index Fungorum number: IF7624; 28 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2020); 5 species with sequence data.


Saprobic on plant substrates in terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Sexual morph: Ascomata scattered, dark brown, broadly ovoid to globose, with setae, papillate. Setae few, brown, multi-septate, slender, tapering towards the apex. Ascomatal wall comprising cells of textura angularis in surface view, Paraphyses hyaline, septate, unbranched. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical-clavate, short-pedicellate, thin-walled. Ascospores uniseriate, hyaline, ellipsoid, septate, easily disarticulating into part-spores. Asexual morph: Hyphomycetous. Colonies effuse, velvety, reverse dark brown to black. Mycelium partly superficial, partly immersed, comprising hyaline, branched, septate, smooth hypha. Conidiophores erect, pigmented, unbranched, apical, arising from submerged hyphae, integrated. Conidiogenous cells phialidic to poly-enteroblastic, with a narrow or wide, deep or short collarette, in some taxa with multiple conidiogenous loci. Conidia arranged in slimy heads or gradually extending cirrhi, seldom in simple chains, but then mostly imbricate, hyaline to sub-hyaline, globose to ellipsoidal or cylindrical, generally uni- or bi-guttulate, smooth-walled, lacking or comprising appendages. Chlamydospores present in some species, pigmented, globose or elongated, terminal, lateral or more rarely intercalary (adapted from Fernández and Huhndorf 2005, Luo et al. 2019).



Type species: Chloridium viride Link, Mag. Gesell. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 3(1-2): 13 (1809)




Notes: Chloridium is characterised by mononematous or macronematous conidiophores, monophialidic or polyphialidic conidiogenous cells, with a funnel-shaped collarette and hyaline to brown, eguttulate or guttulate, appendaged or non-appendaged conidia (Link 1809, Seifert et al. 2011, Wei et al. 2018). Réblová et al. (2016) pointed out that the generic type of Chloridium, C. viride is congeneric with Melanopsammella inaequalis, the type of Melanopsammella (Réblová & Winka 2000, Fernández et al. 2006, Crous et al. 2012). Hughes (1951) revealed that the generic type of Gonytrichum, G. caesium, is the asexual morph of Melanopsammella inaequalis. By considering the above facts, Réblová et al. (2016) proposed that Gonytrichum and Melanopsammella are synonyms of Chloridium. Hence, the widely used generic name Chloridium was conserved over Gonytrichum and Melanopsammella (Réblová et al. 2016, Wei et al. 2018). Wijayawardene et al. (2018) incorrectly treated Chloridium, Gonytrichum and Melanopsammella as three distinct genera. Hyde et al. (2020) then followed Réblová et al. (2016), which was also confirmed in their phylogenetic analysis of combined ITS and LSU sequence data (Hyde et al. 2020). Furthermore, Chloridium species seems to be polyphyletic within Chaetosphaeriaceae (Hyde et al. 2020).



Species illustrated in this entry:

Chloridium gonytrichii (F.A. Fernández & Huhndorf) Réblová & Seifert

Chloridium submersum Z.L. Luo, K.D. Hyde & H.Y. Su



About Sordariomycetes

The webpage Sordariomycetes provides an up-to-date classification and account of all genera of the class Sordariomycetes.


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