Conioscyphales » Conioscyphaceae


Conioscypha Höhn., Annls mycol. 2(1): 58 (1904)

Savoryellomycetidae, Conioscyphales, Conioscyphaceae, Conioscypha

Index Fungorum number: IF7754; Facesoffungi number: FoF 05191; 16 morphological species; 11 species with sequence data.


Saprobic on wood and animal skin. Sexual morph: Ascomata perithecial, astromatic, immersed, semi-immersed or superficial, subhyaline to pale orange or pale brown when fresh, almost invisible when dry, papillate or with a cylindrical neck. Peridium coriaceous, two-layered. Ostiole periphysate. Paraphyses filiform, septate, unbranched, longer than the asci. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, persistent, pedicellate, cylindrical to clavate, sigmoidal, with a tall and prominent J-, refractive apical ring. Ascospores 2–4-seriate, hyaline to subhyaline, ellipsoid to fusiform or fusiform-navicular, transversely septate, not constricted at the septa, lacking any gelatinous sheath or appendages. Asexual morph: Hyphomycetous. Conidiophores micronematous, mononematous, hyaline or pigmented. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, sympodial, cyathiform or doliiform, surrounded by hyaline, multi-layered, with conspicuous cup-like collarettes. Conidia brown, unicellular, non-septate and varying in shape, thick-walled, smooth, with a pore at the point of attachment to the conidiogenous cells, formed individually and in succession, apices of conidiogenous cells proliferate percurrently, liberated after outer wall of the conidiogenous cell ruptures at the apex (adapted from Réblová & Seifert 2004, Zelski et al. 2015, Réblová et al. 2016)


Type species: Conioscypha lignicola Höhn., Annls mycol. 2(1): 58 (1904)


            Notes: Conioscypha comprises species reported from decaying wood, leaves and bamboo from both freshwater and terrestrial habitats, except for C. japonica which was isolated from dog skin fragments and hair (Chuaseeharonnachai et al. 2017, Liu et al. 2019). Conioscypha is characterized by a unique mode of conidiogenesis with blastic conidia produced at inconspicuous loci along the hyphae (Shearer 1973). Traditionally, the conidia were thought to be produced from ‘phialidic’ conidiogenous cells (Goh & Hyde 1998). Shearer & Motta (1973) described Conioscypha conidiogenesis to be both ‘phialidic’ and ‘annelidic’ (Shearer & Motta 1973), but Minter et al. (1983) did not agree with this observation. Cole & Samson (1979) reported conidial development to be intermediate between the ‘phialidic’ and ‘annelidic’ process and after repetitive basipetal conidial secession, the remains of the outer wall of conidia collect centripetally on the conidiogenous cells to form ‘collarettes’. Based on in vitro experiments and molecular DNA data, Réblová & Seifert (2004) introduced Conioscyphascus, typified by Ca. varius, to accommodate holomorphs with Conioscypha asexual morphs. Another sexual-asexual relationship was established for C. peruviana (Zelski et al. 2015). Following abolishment of dual nomenclature and adoption of one fungus, one name, Conioscyphascus was accepted as a synonym of Conioscypha (Zelski et al. 2015, Réblová et al. 2016). Although C. gracilis is the only species of the genus known in its sexual state, the presence of typical conidia on the host near ascomata was repeatedly observed (Réblová & Seifert 2004, Zelski et al. 2015).



Species illustrated in this entry:

Conioscypha varia Shearer

Conioscypha tenebrosa N.G. Liu, K.D. Hyde & J.K. Liu




Chuaseeharonnachai C, Somrithipol S, Suetrong S, Klaysuban A et al. 2017 – Conioscypha nakagirii, a new species from naturally submerged wood in Thailand based on morphological and molecular data. Mycoscience 58, 424–431

Cole GT, Samson RA. 1979 – Patterns of Development in Conidial Fungi. Pitman: London, San Francisco, Melbourne

Goh TK, Hyde KD. 1998 – A new hyphomycete genus, Conioscyphopsis, from wood submerged in a freshwater stream and a review of Conioscypha. Mycological Research 102, 305–312

Liu NG, Bhat DJ, Hyde KD, Liu JK. 2019 – Conioscypha tenebrosa sp. nov. (Conioscyphaceae) from China and notes on Conioscypha species. Phytotaxa 413, 159–171

Minter DW, Sutton BC, Brady BL. 1983 – What are phialides anyway?. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 81, 109–120

Réblová M, Seifert KA. 2004 – Conioscyphascus, a new ascomycetous genus for holomorphs with Conioscypha anamorphs. Studies in Mycology 50, 95–108

Rélová M, Seifert KA, Fournier J, Štěánek V. 2016 – Newly recognised lineages of perithecial ascomycetes: the new orders Conioscyphales and Pleurotheciales. Persoonia 37, 57–81

Shearer CA, Motta JJ. 1973 – Ultrastructure and conidiogenesis in Conioscypha (Hyphomycetes). Canadian Journal of Botany 51, 1747–1751

Shearer CA. 1973 – Fungi of the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries II. The genus Conioscypha. Mycologia 65, 128–136

Zelski SE, Raja HA, Miller AN, Shearer CA. 2015 – Conioscypha peruensis sp. nov., its phylogenetic placement based on 28S rRNA gene, and a report of Conioscypha gracilis comb. nov. from Peru. Mycoscience 56, 319–325


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