Cryphonectria (Sacc.) Sacc. & D. Sacc., Syll. fung. (Abellini) 17: 783 (1905)
Diaporthomycetidae, Diaporthales, Cryphonectriaceae, Cryphonectria
Pathogenic or saprobic on forest trees and economic crops. Sexual morph: Ascostromata made up of erumpent to superficial, hyaline, orange epistromatic portion and immersed, parenchymatous portion. Ascomata perithecial, immersed, globose to subglobose, 4–6 aggregated in a single stroma, with ostiolar canal slender, black to brown ostiole, covered with orange to fuscous-black stromatic tissue. Hamathecium aparaphysate, containing parenchymatous tissues. Asci 8- spored, unitunicate, fusiform to cylindrical, apex blunt, base with small pedicel. Ascospores overlapping biseriate or uniseriate, hyaline, ellipsoid to fusiform, 1-septate. Asexual morph: Coelomycetous. Conidiomata orange to fuscous black, eustromatic, erumpent, pyriform to pulvinate, occurring in the similar stroma as ascomata. Conidiophores hyaline, cylindrical to bottle-shaped, unbranched. Conidiogenous cells phialidic, simple or branched. Conidia aseptate, hyaline, tiny, generally ovoid to cylindrical (adapted from Maharachchikumbura et al. 2016).
Type species: Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) M.E. Barr, Mycol. Mem. 7: 143 (1978)
Notes: Cryphonectria is typified by C. parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight (Anagnostakis 1987, Heiniger & Rigling 1994). Cryphonectria species are sometimes serious canker pathogens but generally survive as saprobes (Roane 1986). Cryphonectria parasitica is illustrated in this entry.
Species illustrated in this entry:
Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) M.E. Barr
Anagnostakis SL. 1987 – Chestnut blight: the classical problem of an introduced pathogen. Mycologia 79, 23–37
Heiniger U, Rigling D. 1994 – Biological control of chestnut blight in Europe. Ann Rev Phytopathol 32, 581–599
Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. 2016 – Families of Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 79, 1–317
Roane MK, Griffin GJ, Elkins JR. 1986 – Chestnut blight, other Endothia diseases, and the genus Endothia. The American Phytopathological Society, USA 1–53