Hypocreales » Hypocreaceae


Trichoderma Pers., Neues Mag. Bot. 1: 92 (1794)

Hypocreomycetidae, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae, Trichoderma

Index Fungorum number: IF 10282; Facesoffungi number: FoF 02111; 378 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2020); 318 species with sequence data.


Biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, saprobic or hypersaprobic on numerous plants, on other members of the fungi including members of Basidiomycota, or on perennial bracket fungi in changing stages of decay, and fewer commonly on herbaceous substrates. Sexual morph: Stromata discrete to effused, composed of pseudoparenchyma cells or highly compressed hyphae, with ascomatal elevations conspicuous or not, stromatal surface variously wrinkled, tuberculate or creased, margins of stromata free from or adherent to the substrate, hyaline, white, yellow, reddish brown, dark brown to black. Ascomata immersed in the stroma,
ascomatal wall and stromatal tissues KOH+ or KOH-. Asci unitunicate, 8-spored, hyaline or green, cylindrical. Ascospores 1-septate, disarticulating early in growth into two equal or unequal, subglobose, ovoid, globose, oblong or wedge-shaped part ascospores, typically spinulose or warted, hardly smooth. Asexual morph: Hyphomycetous. Conidiophores are mostly formed in pustules, conspicuously curved to sinuous or conspicuously curved, without or with weakly developed or well developed main axis, branched, branching irregular, verticillate or occasionally tree-like, smooth, septate, hyaline. Phialides solitary or forming in whorls, sometimes percurrently proliferating, straight, cylindrical or somewhat swollen at or below the middle, curved to sinuous or straight, hyaline, smooth. Conidia green, rarely hyaline, unicellular, ovoid, ellipsoidal, oblong, globose to subglobose, guttulate, smooth, verruculose, spinulose or warted. Chlamydospores globose to subglobose and terminal at the ends of hyphae or intercalary within hyphal cells
(adapted from Maharachchikumbura et al. 2016).


Type species: Trichoderma viride Pers., Neues Mag. Bot. 1: 92 (1794)


Notes: Trichoderma is typified by T. viride (Persoon 1794). Trichoderma species are associated with decaying woody substrates and other fungi (Rossman et al. 1999, Jaklitsch & Voglmayr 2015). Barrasa et al. (1985) introduced the monotypic genus Aphysiostroma based on coprophilous taxon, A. stercorarium. However this genus was synonymized under Trichoderma by Jaklitsch & Voglmayr (2015) based on DNA sequence data. Doi (1972) introduced Pseudohypocrea to accommodate Hypocrea citrinella. Pseudohypocrea species occur mainly on decaying wood, bark and dead leaves (Zhu & Zhuang 2014). However, based on morphological and molecular data, Pseudohypocrea was synonymised under Trichoderma by Zeng & Zhuang (2017).



Species illustrated in this entry:

Trichoderma viride Pers.

Trichoderma erinaceum Bissett, C.P. Kubicek & Szakács




Barrasa JM, Martínez AT, Moreno G. 1985 – Aphysiostroma, a new nonostiolate hypocrealean fungus. Canadian Journal of Botany 63, 2439–2443

Jaklitsch WM, Voglmayr H. 2015 – Biodiversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae) in Southern Europe and Macaronesia. Studies in Mycology 80, 1–87

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. 2016 – Families of Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 79, 1–317

Persoon CH. 1794 – Neuer Versuch einer systematischen Eintheilung der Schwämme. Neues Magazin für die Botanik 1, 63–80

Rossman AY, Samuels GJ, Rogerson CT, Lowen R. 1999 – Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42, 1–248

Zeng XY, Zhao JJ, Hongsanan S, Chomnunti P et al. 2017 – A checklist for identifying Meliolales species. Mycosphere 8, 218–359

Zhu ZX, Zhuang WY. 2014 – Discovery of the second species of Pseudohypocrea (Hypocreaceae). Mycoscience 55, 124–126




About Sordariomycetes

The webpage Sordariomycetes provides an up-to-date classification and account of all genera of the class Sordariomycetes.


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