Lulworthiales » Lulworthiaceae


Lulworthia G.K. Sutherl., Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 5(2): 259 (1916) [1915]

Lulworthiomycetidae, Lulworthiales, Lulworthiaceae, Lulworthia

Index Fungorum number: IF 2953; Facesoffungi number: FoF 02117; 22morphological species (Species Fungorum 2020); 3 species with sequence data.

Parasitic on algae or saprobic on wood. Sexual morph: Ascomata immersed to superficial, ellipsoidal to sphaerical, often swan-shaped, carbonaceous to coriaceous, ostiolate, dark brown with or without a long neck up to 154 mm. Peridium 1–2 layered, formed from an outer layer of cells of textura angularis and an inner layer of elongate cells. Asci 8-spored, clavate to fusiform, short pedicellate, unitunicate, deliquescing early. Ascospores hyaline, filiform, septate, with apical chambers. Asexual morph: Undetermined (adapted from Maharachchikumbura et al. 2016).



Type species: Lulworthia fucicola G.K. Sutherl., Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 5(2): 259 (1916) [1915]



Notes:  The type genus Lulworthia was described by Sutherland (1915) to accommodate the species L. fucicola G.K. Sutherl., a taxon found on the brown seaweed, commonly known as the bladder wrack, at Lulworth Cove on the Dorset coast, UK. Later, the genera Lulworthia and Lindra were included in the family Halosphaeriaceae, order Halosphaeriales by Müller and von Arx (1962). The type species of Lulworthia (L. fucicola) has never been isolated from the marine alga Fucus vesiculosus, so a collection from Chile was designated as neotype by Campbell et al. (2005). Subsequently, based on molecular analysis, a new family Lulworthiaceae in Lulworthiales was designated to include halosphaerialean species with filamentous ascospores (Kohlmeyer et al. 2000). Several new Lulworthia species were described from marine habitats and the genus became one of the largest in marine habitats (Kohlmeyer et al. 2000). Lulworthia has been subjected to revisions over many years (Kohlmeyer 1972; Kohlmeyer & Kohlmeyer 1979; Koch & Jones 1984). Johnson and Sparrow (1961) introduced 12 new Lulworthia species, but Cavaliere and Johnson (1965) synonymized all species with L. medusa (Ellis & Everh.) Cribb & J.W. Cribb. Kohlmeyer (1972) recognized at least three species; and Koch and Jones (1984) recognized six species. Currently eleven species are included with a number of other taxa (Kohlmeyer et al. 2000). As a result of sequence analysis of LSU, a number of transfers have been proposed, such as Lulworthia crassa Nakagiri to Kohlmeyeriella, Lulworthia lignoarenaria Jørg. Koch & E.B.G. Jones to Lulwoidea and Lulworthia uniseptata Nakagiri to Lulwoana (Campbell et al. 2005). Currently only one species (the type species L. fucicola) is accepted in Lulworthia sensu stricto, while eleven species are referred to Lulworthia sensu lato until they are recollected and sequenced (Jones et al. 2015).  




Campbell J, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B, Gräfenhan T, Spatafora JW, Kohlmeyer J (2005) A re-evaluation of Lulworthiales: relationships based on 18S and 28S rDNA. Mycol Res 109:556–568

Cavaliere AR, Johnson TW (1965) A new marine Ascomycete from Australia. Mycologia 57:927–932

Johnson TW, Sparrow FK (1961) Fungi in Oceans and Estuaries. XXII u. 668 S., 7 Abb., 19 Tab., 17 Taf., Weinheim J. Cramer. Preis DM

Jones EBG, Suetrong S, Sakayaroj J, Bahkali AH, Abdel-Wahab MA, Boekhout T, Pang KL (2015) Classification of marine Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota and Chytridiomycota. Fungal Divers 73:1–72

Koch J, Jones EBG (1984) Lulworthia lignoarenaria, a new marine pyrenomycete from coastal sands. Mycotaxon 20:389–395

Kohlmeyer J (1972) A revision of Halosphaeriaceae. Can J Bot 50: 1951–1963

Kohlmeyer J, Kohlmeyer E (1979) Marine Mycology. The Higher Fungi. Academic, New York

Kohlmeyer J, Spatafora JW, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B (2000) Lulworthiales, a new order of marine Ascomycota. Mycologia 92: 453–458

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. 2016 – Families of Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 79, 1–317

Müller E, von Arx JA (1962) Die Gattungen der didymosporen Pyrenomyceten. Beitr Kryptogamenflora Schweiz 11:1–922

Sutherland GK (1915) Additional notes on marine pyrenomycetes. Trans Br Mycol Soc 5:257–263


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