Microascales » Gondwanamycetaceae


Knoxdaviesia M.J. Wingf., P.S. van Wyk & Marasas, Mycologia 80(1): 26 (1988)

Hypocreomycetidae, Microascales, Gondwanamycetaceae, Knoxdaviesia

Index Fungorum number: IF 11113; Facesoffungi number: FoF 02228; 9 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2020); 6 species with sequence data.


Pathogenic on numerous Protea species, occurring in the infructescences and parasitic on bark beetles. Sexual morph: Ascomata black, globose to subglobose, with long neck, narrowing towards the apex, ending in short and divergent, 5–11 ostiolar hyphae. Asci hyaline, evanescent. Ascospores hyaline, aseptate, fusiform, with or without a sheath, occasionally gelatinous sheath giving a lunate to falcate look to the ascospores. Asexual morph: Conidiophores olivaceous-brown, macronematous, mononematous, septate, rising from well-developed rhizoids; stipe erect, simple, inflated at the apex. Conidiogenous cells (phialides) produced terminally on conidiophores, olivaceous-brown, discrete, ovoid, producing conidia at the apex and leaving minute collarettes. Conidia hyaline, holoblastic, one-celled, smooth-walled, cylindrical to allantoid, curved at the apex and truncate at the base, produced in mucoid masses at the apex of conidiophores (adapted from Maharachchikumbura et al. 2016).


Type species: Knoxdaviesia proteae M.J. Wingf., P.S. van Wyk & Marasas, Mycologia 80(1): 26 (1988)




Notes: Knoxdaviesia was established for K. proteae, and the asexual morph of this species was described as Ceratocystiopsis proteae (Wingfield et al. 1988). Subsequently, Marais et al. (1998) introduced the sexual morph genus Gondwanamyces based on G. proteae to accommodate two ophiostomatoid species Ceratocystiopsis proteae (Wingfield et al. 1988) and Ophiostoma capense (Wingfield & van Wyk 1993). Gondwanamyces was characterized by black, globose to subglobose perithecia and aseptate ascospores, with or without a sheath. The asexual morph Knoxdaviesia formed phialoconidia holoblastically from obovoid conidiogenous cells. Sequence data showed that Knoxdaviesia could be accommodated in Custingophora (Kolařík & Hulcr 2009, Moubasher et al. 2017). Van der Linde et al. (2012) rejected the concept of synonymy of Knoxdaviesia in Custingophora and de Beer et al. (2013) erected Knoxdaviesia over Gondwanamyces according to the one fungus one name protocol (Hawksworth 2011, Hawksworth et al. 2011, Moubasher et al. 2017). In this entry, Knoxdaviesia proteae is illustrated.


Species illustrated in this entry:

Knoxdaviesia proteae M.J. Wingf., P.S. van Wyk & Marasas




de Beer ZW, Seifert KA, Wingfield MJ. 2013 – A nomenclator for ophiostomatoid genera and species in the Ophiostomatales and Microascales. In: Seifert KA, de Beer ZW, Wingfield MJ (eds). The ophiostomatoid fungi: expanding frontiers CBS biodiversity series. CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands 245–322

Hawksworth DL. 2011 – A new dawn for the naming of fungi: impacts of decisions made in Melbourne in July 2011 on the future publication and regulation of fungal names. IMA Fungus 2, 155–162

Kolařík M, Hulcr J. 2009 – Mycobiota associated with the ambrosia beetle Scolytodes unipunctatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae). Mycological Research 113, 44–60

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. 2016 – Families of Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 79, 1–317

Marais GJ, Wingfield MJ, Viljoen CD, Wingfield BD. 1998 – A new Ophiostomatoid genus from Protea infructescences. Mycologia 90, 136–141

Moubasher AH, Abdel-Sater MA, Zeinab Soliman. 2017 – Knoxdaviesia with K. serotectus (Van der Linde & Jol. Roux) Z.W. de Beer & M.J. Wingf. a new world record from the gut of red palm weevils. StudiesinFungi 2, 64–70

Van der Linde JA, Six DL, Wingfield MJ, Roux J. 2012 – New species of Gondwanamyces from dying Euphorbia tree in South Africa. Mycologia 104, 574–584

Wingfield MJ, Seifert KA, Webber JF. 1993 – Ceratocystis and Ophiostoma: Taxonomy, ecology and pathogenicity. APS Press, St Paul

Wingfield MJ, van Wyk PS, Marasas WFO. 1988 – Ceratocystiopsis proteae sp. nov., with a new anamorph genus. Mycologia 80, 23–30



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