Telimena Racib., Parasit. Alg. Pilze Java's (Jakarta) 1: 18 (1900)
Sordariomycetidae, Phyllachorales, Telimenaceae, Telimena
Index Fungorum number: IF5364; Facesoffungi number: FoF 08724; 39 morphological species; 18 species with sequence data.
Mostly biotrophic on monocotyledons and dicotyledons (except Poaceae). Sexual morph: Stroma of various shapes, covered by a cuticular or epidermal shiny blackened clypeus, with limited development around the ostiole or extensively above the ascomata and sometimes below the ascomata. Pseudostroma strongly developed, interfusing and conspicuously expanding into the host tissue. Ascomata perithecial, amphigenous, epiphyllous or hyphophyllous, uni-to multiloculate, sometimes confluent, frequently surrounded by a bright yellow to reddish zone, subcuticular, epidermal, subepidermal or immersed in the host tissue, pyriform, globose, lenticular, or deformed by vascular bundles, with a periphysate ostiole. Peridium hyaline to pigmented, composed of cells of textura intricata. Paraphyses hyaline, thin-walled, slightly longer than the asci, septate, often dissolving during maturation. Asci 8-spored, rarely 4-spored, unitunicate, clavate or cylindrical, apical ring often J-. Ascospores 1–2-seriate, usually hyaline, rarely pale brown, globose to filiform, mostly cylindrical, thin and smooth-walled, aseptate to 3-septate, sometimes surrounded by mucilaginous sheath. Spermatogonia infrequently found, pycnidial, spermatiogenous cells cylindrical, tapering towards the tip, proliferating percurrently, with filiform, hyaline, aseptate scolecospores, probably spermatial in function. Asexual morph: Undetermined (adapted from Mardones et al. 2017).
Type species: Telimena erythrinae Racib., Parasit. Alg. Pilze Java's (Jakarta) 1: 18 (1900)
Notes: Raciborski (1900) introduced Telimena for phyllachora-like species with 3-septate ascospores. Close relationships of Telimena with the genera Telimenopsis and Telimenella and Telimenochora have been reported (Petrak 1931, Müller 1975, Barr 1977). These genera are segregated by the shape and septation of the ascospores (Sivanesan 1987). However, there are no molecular sequence data from the type material of most Telimena species (Mardones et al. 2017).
Telimena species occur as parasites on several monocotyledons and eudicotyledons (Mardones et al. 2017). The hyphae of Telimena species, such as Telimena zanthoxylicola, penetrate intracellularly through the host tissue by appressoria-like structures against the host cell walls, which are then perforated by fine canals of the hyphae to form haustoria-like swellings on the other side, which can serve in nutrient absorption (Speer 1980a). Hyphae can continually grow and infect new cells, which are stimulated to divide spontaneously, and this is clearly visible in the palisade cells (Speer 1980a). On the leaves, infected areas do not spread far beyond the radius of the clypeus, however, on twigs hyphal growth is less limited, seeming to cause die-back in the youngest shoots (Speer 1980a). Telimena erythrinae, is a parasite of the dicotyledonous plant host Erythrina variegata (Fabaceae) forming necrotic leaf spots (Mardones et al. 2017).
Telimena picramniae (Syd. & P. Syd.) Mardones, T. Trampe & M. Piepenbr.