Sporidesmium Link, Mag. Gesell. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 3(1-2): 41 (1809)
Diaporthomycetidae, Sporidesmiales, Sporidesmiaceae, Sporidesmium
Saprobic on woody debris in terrestrial and aquatic habitats or mycoparasites. Sexual morph: Ascomata perithecial, scattered or solitary, immersed with neck erumpent through host surface, uniloculate, subglobose or ellipsoidal. Neck cylindrical, central or lateral. Ostiole periphysate. Peridium three-layered. Paraphyses numerous, hypha-like, hyaline, septate, unbranched, persistent, embedded in a gelatinous matrix. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, long cylindrical, apically rounded, with a distinct, relatively small, refractive, J-, wedge-shaped, apical ring. Ascospores obliquely uniseriate, hyaline, fusiform, septate, with a thin sheath. Asexual morph: Colonies black, effuse. Mycelium comprising hyaline to pale brown, branched, septate, thin-walled hyphae. Conidiophores solitary or in clusters, single, or sometimes aggregated in groups, brown, cylindrical, straight or curved, erect or somewhat repent, septate, smooth-walled. Conidiogenous cells monoblastic, holoblastic, terminal, cylindrical, brown, elongating once or twice percurrently at the apex. Conidia dry, solitary, medium brown, smooth, obclavate to cylindrical or fusoid, straight to flexuous, apex obtuse, base obconically truncate, smooth-walled (adapted from Su et al. 2016, Zhang et al. 2017a, b).
Type species: Sporidesmium atrum Link, Mag. Gesell. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 3(1-2): 41 (1809)
Notes: Sporidesmium is a large and heterogeneous genus. To date, 383 epithets are referred to the genus (Index Fungorum 2020). However, many previously described species were revised and transferred to over 30 genera (Iturriaga et al. 2008). Studies based on phylogenetic analysis have been carried out to further re-examine the classification of sporidesmium-like taxa, given that the generic delimitations based on morphology data appear to be questionable. Sporidesmium and morphologically similar genera are clearly not monophyletic, as they are distributed among different families and orders in Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes (Shenoy et al. 2006, Su et al. 2016, Yang et al. 2017). Sporidesmium was an asexual genus until Zhang et al. (2017a) introduced a sexual morph species, Sporidesmium thailandense, collected from freshwater habitat in Thailand.
Sporidesmium dulongense Z.L. Luo, K.D. Hyde & H.Y. Su
Hyde KD, Norphanphoun C, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Bhat DJ et al. 2020 – Refined families of Sordariomycetes. Mycosphere 11, 305–1059.
Index Fungorum. 2020 – http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/Names.asp.
Iturriaga T, Hawksworth DL, Crane JL. 2008 – Sporidesmium lichenicola sp. nov., a new lichenicolous fungus on Leptogium from Venezuela. Mycologia 100, 392–396.
Shenoy BD, Jeewon R, Wu WP, Bhat DJ, Hyde KD. 2006 – Ribosomal and RPB2 DNA sequence analyses suggest that Sporidesmium and morphologically similar genera are polyphyletic. Mycological Research 110, 916–928.
Su HY, Hyde KD, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Ariyawansa HA et al. 2016b – The families Distoseptisporaceae fam. nov., Kirschsteiniotheliaceae, Sporormiaceae and Torulaceae, with new species from freshwater in Yunnan Province, China. Fungal Diversity 80, 375–409.
Yang J, Liu JK, Hyde KD, Jones EBG et al. 2017 – Two new species in Fuscosporellaceae from freshwater habitats in Thailand. Mycosphere 8, 1893–1903.
Zhang H, Dong W, Hyde KD, Maharachchikumbura SSN et al. 2017a – Towards a natural classification of Annulatascaceae-like taxa: introducing Atractosporales ord. nov. and six new families. Fungal Diversity 85, 75–110.
Zhang ZF, Liu F, Zhou X, Liu et al. 2017c – Culturable mycobiota from Karst caves in China, with descriptions of 20 new species. Persoonia: Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi 39, 1–31.