Alishanica miscanthii Karun., C.H. Kuo & K. D. Hyde, in Hyde et al., Mycosphere 11(1): 461 (2020)
Index Fungorum number: IF556757
Holotype – MFLU 19-2333
Saprobic on dead sheaths of Miscanthus sinansis (Poaceae). Sexual morph: Ascomata 277–272 μm high × 288–285 μm diam. (x̅ = 275 × 287 μm, n = 8), immersed beneath blackened aggregated clypeus of the surface of dead sheath, loosely aggregated or rarely solitary; dark brown to black, globose to subglobose, slightly depressed, uniloculate. Ostiole 110–108 μm long, 52–51 μm diameter (x̅ = 108 × 52 μm, n = 5), centrally erumpent, with periphyses, surrounded by distinct shiny black flanges the tissue spreads down along the papilla. Peridium 52–60 μm wide, comprising 4–5 cell layers of thin-walled, brown cells of textura angularis, inwardly lighter. Paraphyses filamentous, distinctly septate, embedded in a hyaline gelatinous matrix. Asci 173–179 × 23–31 μm (x̅ = 176 × 28 μm, n = 30), 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical, short-pedicellate, slightly truncate at the apex, with a wedge-shaped, J+, subapical ring. Ascospores 59–62 × 19–21 μm (x̅ = 61 × 20 μm, n = 40), overlapping, uniseriate, ellipsoidal, slightly tapering at the ends, equally 2-celled and guttulate at both cells, constricted at the septum, brown with striations, surrounded by a thick, hyaline mucilaginous sheath, subglobose, parallel to the margin of the spore. Asexual morph: Undetermined.
Cultural characteristics: Ascospores germinating on PDA within 12 h and germ tubes produced from both ends. Colonies growing on PDA, cottony, white to pale brown, mycelium superficial, irregular edge; asexual spores or sexual spores were not formed within 90 days.
GenBank numbers: ITS: MK503821, LSU: MK503827, SSU: MK503833.
Notes: Alishanica and Cainia (C. desmazieresii and C. anthoxanthis) share similar ascospore characters, notably, ellipsoid with slightly tapering ends, 2 equal cells with guttules at both ends, being constricted at the septum, brown with striations and surrounded by a thick, hyaline mucilaginous sheath. However, Alishanica miscanthii is distinct from Cainia desmazieresii and C. anthoxanthis in having an aggregated clypeus, distinct long ostioles with periphyses, distinct shiny black flanges around the ostioles, cylindrical asci and with uniseriate, slightly curved and distinctly closely striated ascospores (Krug 1978, Senanayake et al. 2015). Alishanica miscanthii can be distinguished from Seynesia by the absence of apical mucilaginous appendages and spore dimensions (Hyde 1995c). Atrotorquata shares more similarities with Cainia and Alishanica and has distinct spore characters (Krug 1978, Kohlmeyer & Volkmann-Kohlmeyer 1993, Senanayake et al. 2015). Furthermore, the separation of A. miscanthii is supported by sequence data (Hyde et al. 2020).
Alishanica miscanthii (Material examined – Taiwan, Chiayi Province, Ali Mountain, Kwang Hwa, on dead sheaths of Miscanthus sinansis (Poaceae), 5 May 2018, A. Karunarathna AKTW 44, MFLU 19-2333 holotype). a Appearance of ascomata on the host. b Clypeus with distinct flanges. c Section through ascoma. d Section through peridium. e Section through ostiole. f Section through flange. g Paraphyses. h-k Different developing stages of the asci. l J+ apical ring. m-p Ascospores. q Ascospore surrounded by mucilaginous sheath. r Germinating ascospore. s, t Culture characteristics on PDA (s = from below, t = from above). Scale bars: c-g = 50 μm, h-r = 10 μm (image from Hyde et al. 2020).