Xylariales » Hypoxylaceae


Daldinia Ces. & De Not., Comm. Soc. crittog. Ital. 1(fasc. 4): 197 (1863)

Xylariomycetidae, Xylariales, Hypoxylaceae, Daldinia

Index Fungorum number: IF1408; 53 morphological species; 43 species with sequence data.


Saprobic or endophytic on plants or occasionally associated with insects. Sexual morph: Stromata erumpent through bark or superficial, sphaerical to depressed sphaerical, placentiform, peltate, turbinate, cylindrical to clavate, regularly brown to purple or at times varying in colour when immature, darkening at maturity, sessile or subsessile to short-pedicellate, solitary to grouped, outline smooth, with inconspicuous to conspicuous ascomatal outlines. Ascomata obovoid to lanceolate; tissue below ascomata woody or gelatinous, basically homogeneous or often comprising alternating concentric zones, coloured with darker and lighter zones, sometimes azonate or entirely absent in mature ascomata and replaced by a hollow cavity. Ostiole umbilicate, or slightly papillate, inconspicuous. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical, often long-pedicellate, with usually a discoid, J+ or J-(rarely), apical ring. Ascospores uniseriate or partly biseriate, unicellular, brown to dark brown, inequilaterally ellipsoid or nearly equilateral, with narrowly or broadly rounded apices, with straight or slightly sigmoid germ slit spore-length. Perispore dehiscent or indehiscent in 10 % KOH, transversally striate or smooth, epispore smooth. Asexual morph: Hyphomycetous. Nodulisporium-like to sporothrix-like branching patterns, sometimes virgariella-like or periconiella-like structures are produced. Conidiogenesis holoblastic or annellidic (adapted from Stadler et al. 2014, Daranagama et al. 2018).


Type species: Daldinia concentrica (Bolton) Ces. & De Not., Comm. Soc. crittog. Ital. 1(fasc. 4): 197 (1863)


Notes: The genus was revisited and redefined by Stadler et al. (2014) and later included in Hypoxylaceae because of its affinities with Hypoxylon. Most species are characterized by well-defined concentric zones in the stromatal interior (Stadler et al. 2014). Multigene phylogeny studies showed that the genus comprises two well-supported clades within the family (Daranagama et al. 2018, Wendt et al. 2018).



Species illustrated in this entry:

Daldinia eschscholtzii (Ehrenb.) Rehm




Daranagama DA, Hyde KD, Sir EB, Thambugala KM et al. 2018 – Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Graphostromataceae, Hypoxylaceae, Lopadostomataceae and Xylariaceae. Fungal Diversity 88, 1–165.

Stadler M, Læssøe T, Fournier J, Decock C et al. 2014 – A polyphasic taxonomy of Daldinia (Xylariaceae). Studies in Mycology 77, 1–143.

Wendt L, Sir EB, Kuhnert E, Heitkämper S et al. 2018 – Resurrection and emendation of the Hypoxylaceae, recognised from a multigene phylogeny of the Xylariales. Mycological Progress 17, 115–154.


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