Xylariales » Hypoxylaceae


Hypoxylon Bull., Hist. Champ. Fr. (Paris) 1(1): 168 (1791)

Xylariomycetidae, Xylariales, Hypoxylaceae, Hypoxylon

Index Fungorum number: IF 2456; 232 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2020), 95 species with sequence data.

Saprobic or endophytic or parasitic. Sexual morph: Stromata superficial, pulvinate or effused, erumpent, hemispherical to sphaerical, surface rusty brown to dark brick, sessile, base attached entirely to the host, orange-red granules immediately beneath surface, with or without KOH-extractable pigments, ascomatal mounds conspicuous to inconspicuous, tissue beneath ascomatal layer black. Ascomata sphaerical, obovoid, tubular, or long tubular, monostichous, with or without carbonaceous stromal material surrounding individual ascoma. Ostioles papillate, umbilicate or at the same level as the stromal surface, black.  Ascomatal wall multi-layered, thick-walled, outermost layer carbonaceous. Paraphyses few, hyaline, septate, tapered. Asci unitunicate, 8-spored, cylindrical, pedicellate, persistent, with J+ or J- apical ring. Ascospores uniseriate, unicellular, ellipsoid or fusoid, inequilateral, slightly inequilateral or nearly equilateral, narrowly to broadly rounded at each end, pale brown to dark brown or blackish-brown, with straight, sigmoid or spiral germ slit spanning the entire spore-length to much less than spore-length on the convex side or, less frequently absent; perispore dehiscent or indehiscent in 10% KOH, smooth or with inconspicuous to very obvious coil-like ornamentation. Asexual morph: Colonies on the substrates superficial, effuse, gray to pale brown. Conidiophores macronematous, mononematous, single, straight to curved, cylindrical, unbranched, septate, pale brown to brown. Conidiogenous cells integrated, intercalary, hyaline to pale brown, smooth. Conidia globose to subglobose, or ellipsoid, gray to pale brown, smooth-walled (Daranagama et al. 2017, Luo et al. 2019).


Type species: Hypoxylon fragiforme (Pers.) J. Kickx f., FI. crypt. Louvain (Bruxelles): 116 (1835)


Notes: Hypoxylon is an extensively studied, species rich genus with more than 200 taxa, but with more than 1000 epithets (Kuhnert et al. 2014, Wijayawardene et al. 2017a). Miller (1961) followed stromatal and ascospore morphology for species delimitation and Ju & Rogers (1996) widely used morphology of asexual morph and stromatal pigments. Currently, the genus has further been restricted with a modern phylogenetic concept based on molecular data. Hypoxylon species are widely distributed and mainly inhabit dead wood as saprobes (Ju & Rogers 1996, Wendt et al. 2018). Some Hypoxylon species occur as endophytes and facultative parasites on diseased hosts (Ju & Rogers 1996, Kuhnert et al. 2014). Many secondary metabolites have been investigated from Hypoxylon species (Helaly et al. 2018) (notes from Hyde et al. 2020).



Species illustrated in this entry:

Hypoxylon lignicola Z.L. Luo, K.D. Hyde & H.Y. Su


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