Xylariales » Induratiaceae


Induratia Samuels, E. Müll. & Petrini, Mycotaxon 28(2): 484 (1987)

Xylariomycetidae, Xylariales, Induratiaceae, Induratia

Index Fungorum Number: IF25403; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06906; 26 morphological species (Samarakoon et al. 2020; mostly previously classified as Muscodor spp.); 25 species with sequence data.


Endophytic on leaves, stems and barks, saprobic on dead wood. Sexual morph: Stromata scattered, solitary or rarely pair-wise, globose to subglobose, just about raised above the host surface, visible as light brown-black, carbonaceous spots, immersed to semi-immersed in host tissue, attached to substrate with a broad base, with a single ascoma per stroma. Clypeus black, thick-walled, short, composed of dark fungal hyphae and host epidermal cells. Ostiole papillate, centric. Peridium wide at base, comprising two layers; inner layer made up of hyaline, thin-walled cells of textura angularis; outer layer composed of yellowish brown, thick-walled cells of textura angularis. Paraphyses hyaline, smooth, thin-walled, of two types; type 1 branched, with short, lateral bridges, aseptate, type 2 infrequently branched, septate. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical, short-pedicellate, apically rounded with a J+ apical apparatus. Ascospores uniseriate, naviculate to ellipsoidal, regularly hyaline, smooth-walled, constricted apiosporous; apical cell conical shape, guttulate with apical remnant; base cell rarely brown, guttulate with basal remnant, produce germ tubes during spore germination. Asexual morph: Conidiophores nodulisporium-like, copious and irregularly branched in the upper part. Conidiogenous cells terminal, solitary or at times two-celled at the ends of branches, cylindrical, pale brown, bearing inconspicuous denticles. Conidia narrowly ellipsoidal to subglobose, hyaline, smooth, with a flat, wide, basal scar (adapted from Samarakoon et al. 2020).


Type species: Induratia apiospora Samuels, E. Müll. & Petrini, Mycotaxon 28(2): 484 (1987)


Notes: Muscodor was introduced by Worapong et al. (2001) and the species identification is mainly based on their characteristic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), inconclusive hyphal characters such as coiling, ropyness and by right angle branching patterns and inadequate phylogenetic analyses (Worapong et al. 2001, González et al. 2009). Due to the lack of taxon sampling, incomplete phylogenetic comparisons and undetermined morphology, the taxonomic placement of Muscodor was considered doubtful (Stadler et al. 2013, Wendt et al. 2018). Therefore, Lumbsch & Huhndorf (2010) did not accept the genus, while Seifert & Gams (2011), Maharachchikumbura et al. (2016) and Daranagama et al. (2018) accepted the genus and placed it in Xylariales genera incertae sedis. Wendt et al. (2018) proposed to reject the genus from the family because of poor taxonomic standards. Samarakoon et al. (2020) found evidence that Muscodor is connected to Induratia, whose sexual morph was described by Samuels et al. (1987). Based on a polyphasic taxonomic approach including a multi gene genealogy, as well as volatile metbolite profiles and dual culture experiments, Samarakoon et al. (2020) erected nine new species and several new combinations of Induratia, mainly resolving the taxonomic confusions of previously published Muscodor species into a new family Induratiaceae.



Species illustrated in this entry:

Induratia thailandica Samarak., Thongbai, K.D. Hyde & M. Stadler




Daranagama DA, Hyde KD, Sir EB, Thambugala KM et al. 2018 – Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Graphostromataceae, Hypoxylaceae, Lopadostomataceae and Xylariaceae. Fungal Diversity 88, 1–165.

González MC, Anaya AL, Glenn AE, Macías-Rubalcava ML et al. 2009 – Muscodor yucatanensis, a new endophytic ascomycete from Mexican chakah, Bursera simaruba. Mycotaxon 110, 363–372.

Lumbsch HT, Huhndorf SM. 2010 – Myconet volume 14 Part One. Outline of Ascomycota-2009. Part two. Notes on Ascomycete systematics. Nos. 4751–5113. Fieldiana Life Earth Sciences 1, 1–64.

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. 2016 – Families of Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 79, 1–317.

Samarakoon MC, Thongbai B, Hyde KD, Brönstrup M et al. 2020 – Elucidation of the life cycle of the endophytic genus Muscodor and its transfer to Induratia in Induratiaceae fam. nov., based on a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Fungal Diversity 101, 177–210.

Samuels GJ, Rogers JD. 1987 – Camarops flava sp. nov., Apiocamarops alba gen. et sp. nov., and notes on Camarops scleroderma and C. ustulinoides. Mycotaxon 28, 45–59.

Seifert KA, Gams W. 2011 –The genera of Hyphomycetes – 2011 update. Persoonia 27, 119–129.

Stadler M, Kuhnert E, Persŏh D, Fournier J. 2013 – The Xylariaceae as model example for a unified nomenclature following the ‘‘One fungus-one name’’ (1F1N) concept. Mycology: An International Journal on Fungal Biology 4, 5–21.

Wendt L, Sir EB, Kuhnert E, Heitkämper S et al. 2018 – Resurrection and emendation of the Hypoxylaceae, recognised from a multigene phylogeny of the Xylariales. Mycological Progress 17, 115–154.

Worapong J, Strobel G, Ford EJ, Li JY et al. 2001 – Muscodor albus anam. gen. et sp nov., an endophyte from Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Mycotaxon 79, 67–79.


About Sordariomycetes

The webpage Sordariomycetes provides an up-to-date classification and account of all genera of the class Sordariomycetes.


Published by the Mushroom Research Foundation 
Copyright © The copyright belongs to the Mushroom Research Foundation. All Rights Reserved.