Arthrinium Kunze, Mykologische Hefte (Leipzig) 1: 9 (1817)
Xylariomycetidae, Amphisphaeriales, Apiosporaceae, Arthrinium
Saprobic or pathogenic on monocotyledons, especially endophytic on plant tissues, or grasses, marine algae, and lichens, occasionally infecting humans, or isolated from soil. Sexual morph: Pseudostromata observable as linear, raised, blackened areas on the host surface, with upper surface and neck observable through slits in the host tissue, fusiform, mostly gregarious, ellipsoid to asymmetrical, black, cells between ascomata and darkened layer above usually thick, composed of brown cells of textura angularis. Ascomata usually gregarious or solitary in linear groups, immersed in pseudostromata, subglobose to globose, membranous, papillate, ostiolate. Ostiole periphysate. Peridium composed of several layers, of brown or reddish brown to hyaline, small, cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium composed of dense, hypha-like, long, broad, branched, septate, paraphyses. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, broad cylindrical to clavate or subglobose, short pedicellate, without an apical ring. Ascospores coinciding 1–3-seriate to irregularly arranged, hyaline, apiosporous, with a straight, large or curved, upper cell and smaller lower cell, usually surrounded by a gelatinous sheath. Asexual morph: Coelomycetous or hyphomycetous. Conidiomata sporodochial, unitary to gregarious, immersed, erumpent from host tissue when mature, black, irregular, carbonaceous, coriaceous. Conidiomata basal stroma composed of several layers of dark brown to hyaline cells of textura angularis, with thick side wall, thin at upper to lower walls. Setae lacking, or occasionally present, intermingled among conidiophores. Conidiophore verrucose, flexuous. Conidiophore mother cells ampulliform, with a verrucose wall, producing a single hyphoid, cylindrical, 1–2-septate. Conidiogenous cells basauxic, cylindrical, smooth-walled or verrucose. Conidia dark brown, subglobose to globose, smooth-walled or with minute wall ornamentations, with a truncate basal scar (adapted from Maharachchikumbura et al. 2016).
Type species: Arthrinium caricicola Kunze & J.C. Schmidt, Mykologische Hefte (Leipzig) 1: 9 (1817)
Notes: Crous & Groenewald (2013) showed that Apiospora is the sexual morph of Arthrinium. Crous & Groenewald (2013) placed the younger sexual typified name, that is, Apiospora under the older asexual typified name. This adoption was followed in subsequent publications by Dai et al. (2016), Maharachchikumbura et al. (2016) and Wijayawardene et al. (2016). Molecular data have proven that Arthrinium is a speciose genus (Dai et al. 2017, Wang et al. 2018, Pintos et al. 2019).
Species illustrated in this entry:
Arthrinium neogarethjonesii D.Q. Dai & K.D. Hyde
Crous PW, Groenewald JZ. 2013 – A phylogenetic re-evaluation of Arthrinium. IMA Fungus 4, 133–154
Dai DQ, Jiang HB, Tang LZ, Bhat DJ. 2016 – . Two new species of Arthrinium (Apiosporaceae, Xylariales) associated with bamboo from Yunnan, China Mycosphere 7, 1332–1345
Dai DQ, Phookamsak R, Wijayawardene NN, Li WJ et al. 2017 – Bambusicolous fungi. Fungal Diversity 82, 1–105
Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. 2016 – Families of Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 79, 1–317
Pintos A, Alvarado P, Planas J, Jarling R. 2019 – Six new species of Arthrinium from Europe and notes about A. caricicola and other species found in Carex spp. hosts. Mycokeys 49, 15–48
Wang M, Tian XM, Liu F, Cai L. 2018 – Eight new Arthrinium species from China. Mycokeys 34, 1–24
Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Wanasinghe DN, Papizadeh M et al. 2016 – Taxonomy and phylogeny of dematiaceous coelomycetes. Fungal Diversity 77, 1–316