Iodosphaeria Samuels, E. Müll. & Petrini, Mycotaxon 28(2): 486 (1987)
Xylariomycetidae, Amphisphaeriales, Iodosphaeriaceae, Iodosphaeria
Index Fungorum number: IF25402; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06190; 8 morphological species (Species Fungorum 2020), 2 species with sequence data.
Saprobic on dead twigs and leaves of various hosts. Sexual morph: Ascomata superficial, solitary, black, and easily removed from the substrate, covered with dark brown, setae-like, brown hairs, comprising agglutinated mycelial strands, with a stellate arrangement, arising from cells at the perithecial surface. Ostioles pore-like opening, central, with periphyses. Peridium outer region comprising pigmented, brown cells of textura angularis, inner region comprising hyaline, flattened cells. Paraphyses numerous, hypha-like, septate, flexuose, slightly tapered towards the apex. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, narrowly clavate, short pedicellate or apedicellate, apex rounded, with a J+, subapical ring. Ascospores biseriate, hyaline, allantoid, unicellular, smooth-walled, lacking sheaths or appendages. Asexual morph: ceratosporium-like conidia have been observed on the surface of perithecia, but may not be related (adapted from Maharachchikumbura et al. 2016, Marasinghe et al. 2019).
Type species: Iodosphaeria phyllophila (Mouton) Samuels, E. Müll. & Petrini, Mycotaxon 28(2): 486 (1987)
Notes: Iodosphaeria was initially placed in Amphisphaeriaceae by Samuels et al. (1987) and this placement was also accepted by Eriksson et al. (2001). However, Barr (1994) and Hyde (1995) suggested that this genus should be placed in Lasiosphaeriaceae. Kang et al. (1998, 1999) and Jeewon et al. (2003) later suggested that Iodosphaeria should be excluded from Amphisphaeriaceae and the genus was transferred to Trichosphaeriaceae (Réblová 1999). Hilber & Hilber (2002) eventually introduced Iodosphaeriaceae. Iodosphaeria aquatica was excluded from Iodosphaeria based on its morphology being similar to Pseudohalonectria lignicola (Hsieh et al. 1997). Iodosphaeria tongrenensis and Iodosphaeria honghense have recently been introduced by Li et al. (2015) and Marasinghe et al. (2019) respectively from China with morphology and molecular evidence.
Most Iodosphaeria species are saprobes which occur worldwide (Samuels et al. 1987, Barr 1994, Hyde 1995, Candoussau et al. 1996, Hsieh et al. 1997, Taylor & Hyde 1999, Catania & Romero 2012, Li et al. 2015a, Marasinghe et al. 2019), and have never been reported as being pathogenic on hosts. They are probably endophytes that become saprobes at leaf senescence.
Species illustrated in this entry:
Iodosphaeria honghense Marasinghe, Hongsanan & Boonmee, in Marasinghe, Samarakoon, Hongsanan, Boonmee & Mckenzie, Phytotaxa 420(4): 276 (2019)
Barr ME. 1994 – Notes on the Amphisphaeriaceae and related families. Mycotaxon 51, 191–224.
Candoussau F, Magni JF, Petrini LE, Barr ME, Petrini O. 1996 – Bambusicolous fungi collected in Southwestern France: an annotated list. Mycologia Helvetica 8, 11–20.
Catania MV, Romero AI. 2012 – Crassoascus monocaudatus and Iodosphaeria podocarpi, two new species on Podocarpus parlatorei from “Las Yungas”, Argentina. Mycosphere 3, 37–44.
Eriksson OE, Baral HO, Currah RS, Hansen K et al. 2001 – Outline of Ascomycota–2001. Myconet 7, 1–88.
Hilber R, Hilber O. 2002 – The Genus Lasiosphaeria and allied taxa. Kelheim 1–9.
Hsieh WH, Chen CY, Sivanesan A. 1997 – Iodosphaeria polygoni sp. nov., a new pyrenomycete from Taiwan. Mycological Research 101, 841–842.
Hyde KD. 1995 – Tropical Australian freshwater fungi. VII: New genera and species of Ascomycetes. Nova Hedwigia 61, 119–140.
Jeewon R, Liew ECY, Hyde KD. 2003 – Molecular systematics of the Amphisphaeriaceae based on cladistic analyses of partial LSU rDNA gene sequences. Mycological Research 107, 1392–1402.
Kang JC, Hyde KD, Kong RYC. 1999 – Studies on Amphisphaeriales: the Amphisphaeriaceae (sensu stricto). Mycological Research 103, 53–64.
Kang JC, Kong RYC, Hyde KD. 1998 – Studies on the Amphisphaeriales 1.Amphisphaeriaceae (sensu stricto) and its phylogenetic relationships inferredfrom 5.8S rDNA and ITS2 sequences. Fungal Diversity 1, 147–157.
Li QR, Kang JC, Hyde KD. 2015 – A multiple gene genealogy reveals the phylogenetic placement of Iodosphaeria tongrenensis sp. nov. in Iodosphaeriaceae (Xylariales). Phytotaxa 234, 121–132.
Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. 2016 – Families of Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 79, 1–317.
Marasinghe DS, Samarakoon MC, Hongsanan H, Boonmee S, McKenzie EHC. 2019 – Iodosphaeria honghense sp. nov. (Iodosphaeriaceae, Xylariomycetidae) from Yunnan Province, China. Phytotaxa 420, 273–282.
Réblová M. 1999 – Studies in Chaetosphaeria sensu lato IV. Crassochaeta gen. nov., a new lignicolous genus of the Trichosphaeriaceae. Mycotaxon 71, 45–67.
Samuels GJ, Rogers JD. 1987 – Camarops flava sp. nov., Apiocamarops alba gen. et sp. nov., and notes on Camarops scleroderma and C. ustulinoides. Mycotaxon 28, 45–59.
Taylor JE, Hyde KD. 1999 – Fungi from palms. XL. Iodosphaeria. Sydowia 51, 127–132.