Calosphaeriales » Pleurostomataceae

Pleurostoma

Pleurostoma Tul. & C. Tul., Select. fung. carpol. (Paris) 2: 247 (1863)

Diaporthomycetidae, Calosphaeriales, Pleurostomataceae, Pleurostoma

Index Fungorum number: IF4247; Facesoffungi number: FoF 01137; morphological species; 4 species with sequence data.

 

Saprobic on wood or soil in terrestrial habitats, or in sewage or pathogen of humans causing subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis. Sexual morph: Ascomata perithecial, black, gregarious or scattered, superficial, stipitate, globose to subglobose, coriaceous, smooth, without setae, papillate; papilla positioned laterally. Peridium composed of two to four layers, outer layer comprising brown cells of textura intricata or epidermoidea, thick, coriaceous; inner layer comprising hyaline cells of textura prismatica or angularis, thin, membranaceous; sometimes middle layers comprised of two types of cells, forming thin-walled and brown cells of textura epidermoidea to in the outer part, merging with thin-walled and dark brown cells of textura angularis in the inner part, thick, coriaceous. Paraphyses numerous, hyaline, filamentous, early deliquescing. Asci polysporous, unitunicate, reniform or oval, with short pedicel or sessile, apical ring lacking. Ascospores 2–3-seriate, hyaline, oblong to allantoid, curved, aseptate, smooth-walled. Asexual morph: Mycelium composed of branched, septate, hyaline or brown hyphae. Conidiophores in vitro arising from aerial or submerged hyphae, hyaline, straight or flexuous, 0–2-septate, tuberculate or smooth-walled. Conidiogenous cells mono- or polyphialidic, cylindrical, hyaline, smooth-walled. Conidia aggregated in slimy droplets, hyaline, aseptate, oblong to allantoid, curved or straight, smooth, with or without guttules (adapted from Réblová et al. 2015, Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015, 2016).

 

Type species: Pleurostoma candollei Tul. & C. Tul. [as 'candollii'], Select. fung. carpol. (Paris) 2: 247 (1863)

 

Notes: Tulasne and Tulasne (1863) introduced the type species, Pleurostoma candollei. Pleurostomophora was accepted as the asexual morph of Pleurostoma based on morphology and phylogenetic evidence (Réblová et al. 2004, Vijaykrishna et al. 2004, Najwa et al. 2012). However, only the life history of Pleurostoma ootheca has been experimentally verified and linked with Pleurostomophora ootheca. The asexual morph of P. candollei is undetermined, except for an illustration in the protologue showing a sporodochial conidiomata (Tulasne & Tulasne 1863). Réblová et al. (2015) and Maharachchikumbura et al. (2015) reported that Pleurostoma and Pleurostomophora are congeneric as both genera constitute a strongly supported monophyletic clade in Pleurostomataceae in a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis. Réblová et al. (2015) proposed Pleurostoma as the correct name for the genus following the principle of priority.

 

           

References:

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. 2015 – Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 72, 199–301.

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. 2016 – Families of Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 79, 1–317.

Najwa AM, Sarah AA, Ahmed HFG, Sybren DH et al. 2012 – Pleurostomophora ochracea, a novel agent of human eumycetoma with yellow grains. J Clin Microbiol 50, 2987–2994.

Réblová M, Jaklitsch WM, Réblová K, Štěpánek V. 2015 – Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calosphaeriales and Togniniales using five genes and predicted RNA secondary structures of ITS, and Flabellascus tenuirostris gen. et sp. nov. PloS one 10, e0144616.

Réblová M. 2004 – Four new species of Chaetosphaeria from New Zealand and redescription of Dictyochaeta fuegiana. Studies in Mycology 50, 171–186.

Tulasne LR, Tulasne C. 1863 – Selecta Fungorum Carpologia, Tomus Secundus. Xylariei Valsei Sphaeriei 2, 1–319.

Vijaykrishna D, Mostert L, Jeewon R, Gams W et al. 2004 – Pleurostomophora, an anamorph of Pleurostoma (Calosphaeriales), a new anamorph genus morphologically similar to Phialophora. Stud Mycol 50, 387–395.

 

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