Pyricularia (Sacc.) Sacc. [as 'Piricularia'], Syll. fung. (Abellini) 4: 217 (1886)
Diaporthomycetidae, Magnaporthales, Pyriculariaceae, Pyricularia
Pathogenic on plants. Sexual morph: Ascomata perithecial, immersed in host tissue, solitary and gregarious, subsphaerical, black to brown, with long neck protruding through host surface. Peridium containing several layers of textura angularis. Paraphyses intermingled among asci, unbranched, septate. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, subcylindrical to clavate, short-pedicellate, with large, prominent, J+, apical ring. Ascospores hyaline, bi- to multi-seriate, fusiform, curved, with rounded ends, transversely 3-septate, a little constricted at septa, guttulate, smooth-walled. Asexual morph: Hyphomycetous. Conidiophores, hyaline to pale brown, solitary or in fascicles, sub cylindrical, smooth, rarely branched, with sympodial propagation. Conidiogenous cells pale brown, terminal and intercalary, with denticulate conidiogenous loci and rhexolytic secession. Conidia hyaline to pale brown, solitary, pyriform to obclavate, 2-septate, tapered toward tip, rounded at the base, with a distinct basal hilum, sometimes with marginal frill (adapted from Maharachchikumbura et al. 2016).
Type species: Pyricularia grisea Cooke ex Sacc., Michelia 2(no. 6): 20 (1880)
Notes: The name Pyricularia refers to the pyriform shape of the conidia, which is a specific character of this genus (Bussaban et al. 2005). Pyricularia species can infect various monocotyledons including Cenchrus, Echinochloa, Lolium, Oryza, Pennisetum or Zingiber. Pyricularia oryzae is the cause of rice blast disease, one of the most important diseases of rice. Klaubauf et al. (2014) synonymised Magnaporthe grisea under Pyricularia grisea, by clarifying the taxonomic relationships among species that are magnaporthe- or pyricularia-like using molecular phylogeny (LSU, ITS, rpb1, act and calM).
Species illustrated in this entry:
Pyricularia grisea Cooke ex Sacc.
Bussaban B, Lumyong S, Lumyong P, Seelanan T et al. 2005 – Molecular and morphological characterization of Pyricularia and allied genera. Mycologia 97, 1002–1011
Klaubauf S, Tharreau D, Fournier E, Groenewald JZ et al. 2014 – Resolving the polyphyletic nature of Pyricularia (Pyriculariaceae). Studies in Mycology 79, 85–120
Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. 2016 – Families of Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 79, 1–317